How Do Vaccines Work? – Simple Explanation

People around the world suffered from the COVID situation for almost two years. Now, we are roaming the streets of the cities and having dinner with our loved ones. Thanks to the lockdown measures and Health officials who helped directly and indirectly to overcome this pandemic. Apart from them, there’s another significant member, that is vaccine. In this small article, we will learn about how the vaccines work.

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Why do we need Vaccines?

We are surrounded by millions of germs in food, water and even air. Every germ is not harmful. But some of these enter into our bodies and harm our system. These viruses, bacteria, fungus (germs) are called pathogens.

Vaccines are revolutionary technolgy that saves millions of lives

Bill Gates

Our initial defence mechanisms like mucus, hairs inside the nose canals, and skin mucus can prevent these germs. But some enter by eliminating these defences.

Our body naturally has a defence mechanism against these pathogens based on experience. This means our body’s defence mechanism knows that particular pathogen and how to get rid of it from the system from the previous encounter.

Pathogen is made up of several biological parts. When a pathogen enters the human body, our immune system detects its antigen subpart. After that, our immune system creates antibodies against that particular antigen. There are thousands of antibodies present in our body specific to the pathogen.

The creation of antibodies is related to the amount of pathogen exposure in the body. If the immune system already knows the pathogen’s antigen, then the antibodies will created sooner. Otherwise, it will take time. This is where vaccines come in handy.

Vaccines a Tiny History

In the 1790s, Edward Jenner, a famous British scientist, found the first vaccine for smallpox disease from cowpox. Since then, researchers made lots of vaccines.

How do Vaccines Work?

Vaccines are the weak and unharmful version of the deadly pathogen. Since they have the same antigen structure as the normal one, which helps our immune system to create antibodies, it’s like training for the immune system.

From this experience, the immune system can create antibodies against the real and deadly version of the pathogen. So, this training helps our immune system to act upon that pathogen in future.

This means the person who is vaccinated is immune to that particular disease. Similarly, one needs to take available vaccine shots present in the market against deadly diseases.


Apart from individual immunity, this vaccination also helps people who are not vaccinated surrounded by the vaccinated person. Because the weak pathogen present in the vaccinated people somehow enters the non-vaccinated people. This will help those people to gain immunity against the disease even if they are not vaccinated.

“To make our community healthy and immune to deadly diseases, take vaccine shots on time.”


To learn more about vaccination: The WHO Article on Vaccination and Immunity

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