A basic Electrostatic introduction was provided earlier. Now we continue on that by learning some properties of charges. Well, it turns it into the regular physics class. No, it isn’t. If you see an unknown person in a cafeteria, we will describe him to your friends by his look, clothes, hairstyle etc. These are known as properties.

Similar to this, we need some properties to describe the charges. Hold on a second!!

Before that, we need to know about the types of charges.

- Positive
- Negative

Negative charges are the electrons inside the material.

Positive charges are not a real thing. It’s a vacancy inside the material after electrons are left out.

## Properties of charges:

- Quantization of charges
- Addition of charges
- Conservation of charges

## Quantization of charges:

We can describe the house in terms of bricks. Also, the Human body can explain in terms of cells. Similarly, the charge on any material is an integral multiple of a quantum of charge ‘e’. Consider a ball that has 10 charges inside it. So, the quantization becomes ‘ne’ (10x e).

The Quantum of charge or the charge of electron e is 1.6×10^(-19)C.

## Addition of charges:

We all know there are two types of charges, positive and negative. The total charge of the material and the sum of all individual charges inside it are equal.

For example, consider a pomegranate without the peel. The mass of the fruit is equal to the sum of individual aril mass. Similarly, we find the total charge of the material by individuals.

## Conservation of charges:

The charge is like heat. Both you cannot create or destroy. But you can transfer one into another form. Which helps these charges move from one material to another by repulsion and attraction.

The same theory explains the creation of charges due to friction. The experiment of rubbing the comb on our head charges the comb.

## Solve it yourself-Properties of charges:

- If the material has 10 electrons in it, what is its charge? (5 points)
- A box contains 4 different charges 10nC, 4 nC , 3nC and 1nC. Find the total charge of the box? (5 points)

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